STP715: Daphnia Toxicity Tests

    Buikema, AL
    Associate professor of zoology and graduate student, University Center for Environmental Studies and Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.

    Geiger, JG
    Associate professor of zoology and graduate student, University Center for Environmental Studies and Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.

    Lee, DR
    Research associate, Department of Geology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario

    Pages: 22    Published: Jan 1980


    Abstract

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and to discuss the use of Daphnia in toxicity tests in the context of what we understand about its biology. For example, the effects of nutrition and starvation on the toxicant sensitivity of daphnids and on the test design were evaluated. Furthermore, the variation in data from chronic studies may be an artifact resulting from poor food quality, competition between the female and the offspring for food, testing a hard-water species in soft water, and other environmental parameters that have not been considered in the experimental design. Based on this review, research needs are briefly discussed. These include research on: foods, trace elements, and vitamins and their effects on reproduction; the development of culture health indexes; procedures for culture synchronization in order to produce large numbers of organisms of similar age or size; the stability of culture biomass; and temperature-light interactions on toxicant sensitivity. User groups have not been given the guidance they need in conducting toxicity tests, and one alternative guideline is suggested.

    Keywords:

    aquatic toxicology, invertebrates, bioassays, Daphnia


    Paper ID: STP33407S

    Committee/Subcommittee: D19.24

    DOI: 10.1520/STP33407S


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