Published: Jan 1977
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Zirconium and, to some extent, hafnium are used in a variety of minor applications. The largest of these uses is the filler in photo flashbulbs. The extremely high light output of burning zirconium makes possible the very small bulbs now in wide use in flash cubes. Foil less than 1/1000 in. thick of very pure zirconium is shredded for this application. About 20 000 flashbulbs come from a single pound of foil. Hafnium provides an even more intense light, but because of its much greater cost, it is used only in special high output bulbs.