Published: Jan 1981
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The grain refinement of steel has traditionally been achieved by the addition of aluminum to the ingot mold.
In the production of fine-grain strand-cast billets it has been necessary for the steel-maker to develop alternative methods of grain refinement because of the detrimental effect of aluminum on surface quality.
Elements used for this purpose are columbium and vanadium, added in the form of ferroalloys.
This paper discusses the reasons for the development of these practices, the effect of these additions on the finished product, and asks the question, “Why fine grain”?
ferroalloys, alloy additions, steelmaking, grain refining, columbium, vanadium
Superintendent of Quality Control, Chaparral Steel Co., Midlothian, Tex.