STP707

    Comparison of Heavy Metal Interactions in Acute and Artificial Stream Bioassay Techniques for the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea)

    Published: Jan 1980


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    Abstract

    Population densities of the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, in the thermally influenced areas of the New River at the Glen Lyn power plant, Glen Lyn, Va., increased from zero before 1975 to approximately 11 522/m2 by February 1978. Since their establishment, clams in the thermal effluent have served as a source of propagules for clam invasion into other areas of the New River during the warmer seasons.

    Copper was more toxic (LC50 = 0.04 ppm) to the clam than zinc (LC50 = 6.04 ppm) or copper-zinc simultaneously (LC50 = 0.05 ppm) in 96-h static bioassays. Ninety-six-h LC50 determinations in artificial stream bioassays were at least one order of magnitude higher when compared with the static test values (the LC50 values for copper and copper-zinc combined were 0.49 and 3.06 ppm, respectively). The LC50 values appeared also to be the effective concentration at which at least 50 percent of the clams demonstrated a gaping response and cessation of filtering activity. Elemental bioaccumulation of copper and zinc was more prevalent in the visceral tissue than in concentrations measured from clam valves or from the water in both laboratory bioassays and field determinations. When copper bioaccumulation in the viscera increased to approximately 275 to 400 ppm, gaping and a lack of filtering activity were evident in 96-h tests. Behavioral mechanisms—cessation of filtering activity and the closure of valves during stress—were considered to be likely factors in producing the higher LC50 values, when compared with other invertebrate responses.

    Keywords:

    aquatic toxicology, static bioassays, artificial stream bioassays, heavy metal toxicity, elemental bioaccumulation, Asiatic clam


    Author Information:

    Rodgers, JH
    Research scientist II and assistant professor of biology, Institute of Applied Sciences, North Texas State University, Denton, Texas

    Cherry, DS
    Assistant professor of zoology, graduate research assistant, and University Distinguished Professor and director, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.

    Graney, RL
    Assistant professor of zoology, graduate research assistant, and University Distinguished Professor and director, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.

    Dickson, KL
    Associate professor and director, Institute of Applied Sciences, North Texas State University, Denton, Texas

    Cairns, J
    Assistant professor of zoology, graduate research assistant, and University Distinguished Professor and director, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.


    Paper ID: STP27424S

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.30

    DOI: 10.1520/STP27424S


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