STP707: A Tentative Seven-Day Test for Predicting Effects of Stress on Populations of Daphnia pulex

    Geiger, JG
    Graduate student, associate professor, and professor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityUnited States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeastern Fish Cultural Laboratory, BlacksburgMarion, VA.Ala.

    Buikema, AL
    Graduate student, associate professor, and professor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityUnited States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeastern Fish Cultural Laboratory, BlacksburgMarion, VA.Ala.

    Cairns, J
    Graduate student, associate professor, and professor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityUnited States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Southeastern Fish Cultural Laboratory, BlacksburgMarion, VA.Ala.

    Pages: 14    Published: Jan 1980


    Abstract

    Both acute and chronic effects of water-soluble fractions of several hydrocarbon compounds and a simulated refinery effluent (SRE) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The 48-h LC50 values (as percent water-soluble fractions) for creosote, No. 2 fuel oil, naphthalene, and phenanthrene were 2.9, 34.1, 57.5, and 100 percent, respectively. For the SRE, the 48-h LC50 was 0.03 times the formulation. For all the chronic studies, young Daphnia were exposed to sublethal concentrations corresponding to the calculated LC20 and LC30 values. Of the seven biological parameters measured, each compound had its greatest effect on the growth rate and number of live young produced. The effects of creosote and phenanthrene were the most dramatic.

    These data and other available chronic data indicate that 21-day Daphnia reproductive impairment tests were reasonable predictors when compared with life history data. However, our studies with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were only 56 percent predictive of the long-term effects. Analysis of our data and that from the literature suggests that the length of preadult Daphnia after 7 days of exposure to stress conditions can be used to predict chronic effects with the same degree of accuracy as the 21-day test.

    Keywords:

    aquatic toxicology, Daphnia, hydrocarbons, chronic toxicity tests, life history tests, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons


    Paper ID: STP27406S

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.14

    DOI: 10.1520/STP27406S


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