STP623

    Dispersive Clay in Irrigation Dams in Thailand

    Published: Jan 1977


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    Abstract

    Since 1970, a number of earth dams in northeast Thailand have suffered serious tunnel and surface erosion from rainfall, and several have failed during the first reservoir filling. The behavior is typical of dams containing dispersive clay. This paper describes the testing program undertaken to evaluate the embankment and foundation materials, and discusses the results. Laboratory testing included chemical analysis of the saturation extract, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service dispersion test and X-ray diffraction. Some correlation was found between the test results and the extent of the damage to various embankments.

    In the search for nondispersive soil, the Emerson Crumb Test has been used for initial indications in the field, as well as being used, with modifications, in the laboratory.

    A description is given of measures being adopted to repair two damaged dams with dispersive soil where nondispersive soil is not available. The repairs involve the replacement of eroded material and the prevention of any serious future damage to existing and new materials by physical and chemical treatments.

    Keywords:

    clays, earth dams, dispersions, erosion, piping (erosion), soil investigations, soil tests, soil chemistry, soil stabilization


    Author Information:

    Cole, BA
    Senior design engineers, The Hydro-Electric Commission, Hobart, Tasmania

    Ratanasen, C
    Special grade dam engineer, senior design engineer, and soil engineer, Royal Irrigation Department, Bangkok,

    Maiklad, P
    Special grade dam engineer, senior design engineer, and soil engineer, Royal Irrigation Department, Bangkok,

    Liggins, TB
    Senior design engineers, The Hydro-Electric Commission, Hobart, Tasmania

    Chirapuntu, S
    Special grade dam engineer, senior design engineer, and soil engineer, Royal Irrigation Department, Bangkok,


    Paper ID: STP26977S

    Committee/Subcommittee: D18.07

    DOI: 10.1520/STP26977S


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