Published: Jan 1987
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Measurement consists of comparison of samples of unknown composition with standards of known composition or with scales calibrated with respect to such standards. The standards used must simulate the unknowns with respect to matrix and level of analyte if the comparisons are to be valid. This paper reviews the fundamental aspects of calibration, describes various approaches that may be utilized, and considers the sources of error in the calibration process. The evaluation of calibration uncertainty and ways to minimize it are discussed. A general discussion of linear relationships as applied to calibration is presented.
calibration, chemical analysis, intercalibration, linear relationships, measurements, quality assurance, standardization, air quality, sampling, atmospheric measurements
Coordinator for Chemical Measurement Assurance and Voluntary Standardization, Center for Analytical Chemistry, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD