STP1019: On-Line, Mass Spectrometric Determination of Ammonia from Oil Shale Pyrolysis Using Isobutane Chemical Ionization

    Crawford, RW
    Section leader, Organic Analysis Section; fossil fuels chemist; mass spectroscopist, Organic Analyses Section; and chemical engineer, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA

    Coburn, TT
    Section leader, Organic Analysis Section; fossil fuels chemist; mass spectroscopist, Organic Analyses Section; and chemical engineer, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA

    Miller, PE
    Section leader, Organic Analysis Section; fossil fuels chemist; mass spectroscopist, Organic Analyses Section; and chemical engineer, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA

    Oh, MS
    Section leader, Organic Analysis Section; fossil fuels chemist; mass spectroscopist, Organic Analyses Section; and chemical engineer, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA

    Pages: 11    Published: Jan 1989


    Abstract

    Ammonia is the predominant nitrogen-containing species formed during the pyrolysis of oil shale. An on-line method of determining ammonia was developed to study kinetics and chemistry of formation and evolution. While fragmentation of water interferes with electron ionization mass spectrometry, chemical ionization mass spectrometry using isobutane reagent gas gave excellent sensitivity and selectivity for ammonia. All transfer and sampling lines from the retort were heated to approximately 150°C. We successfully measured ammonia evolution from various oil shales retorted under a variety of conditions, including steam retorting.

    Keywords:

    ammonia, mass spectrometry, chemical ionization, oil shale, pyrolysis, retort, on-line methods, real-time methods, determination, steams, fossil fuels


    Paper ID: STP18679S

    Committee/Subcommittee: D02.04

    DOI: 10.1520/STP18679S


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