STP1018

    Effects of Chemical Dispersant Agents on the Behavior and Retention of Spilled Crude Oil in a Simulated Streambed Channel

    Published: Jan 1989


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    Abstract

    Field experiments were performed to obtain first-step estimates of the effects of selected chemical dispersant agents (OFC D-609 and Corexit 9550) on the behavior and retention of spilled crude oil in a shallow freshwater streambed environment in southcentral Alaska. Comparisons between experiments with and without prespill additions of dispersants to the oil included measurements of oil in sediment and water samples. Sediment and water contamination by oil was quantified by flame ionization detector capillary gas chromatography (FID-GC) as well as visual observations in the simulated streambed channel following the spill events. Inclusion of dispersants in the oil produced the intended result of enhancing dispersion of oil into the aqueous phase. However, distributions of oil in aqueous and sediment samples were controlled by interactions between a variety of factors including rheological properties of the oil (for example, oil/water interfacial surface tension values), particle size distributions of sediment matrices, exposure of sediment surfaces to oil, and in situ water flow characteristics at specific streambed channel sites. The results imply that use of chemical dispersants to mitigate effects of oil spills in freshwater streambed environments must include an understanding of the interplay between variables related to both the type of oil released and the specific streambed environment.

    Keywords:

    chemical dispersants, crude oil, freshwater streambed, sediments, water, oil dispersion, surface oil slick, rheological properties, interfacial surface tension, sediment particle size distribution, water flow properties


    Author Information:

    Clayton, JR
    Senior scientist, associate chemist, senior project manager, chemistry task manager, associate chemist, associate chemist, section manager, and senior scientist, Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), San Diego, CA

    Farmer, GH
    Senior scientist, associate chemist, senior project manager, chemistry task manager, associate chemist, associate chemist, section manager, and senior scientist, Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), San Diego, CA

    Payne, JR
    Senior scientist, associate chemist, senior project manager, chemistry task manager, associate chemist, associate chemist, section manager, and senior scientist, Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), San Diego, CA

    McNabb, GD
    Senior scientist, associate chemist, senior project manager, chemistry task manager, associate chemist, associate chemist, section manager, and senior scientist, Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), San Diego, CA

    Harkins, PC
    Senior scientist, associate chemist, senior project manager, chemistry task manager, associate chemist, associate chemist, section manager, and senior scientist, Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), San Diego, CA

    Evans, JS
    Senior scientist, associate chemist, senior project manager, chemistry task manager, associate chemist, associate chemist, section manager, and senior scientist, Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), San Diego, CA

    Rottunda, NP
    Senior scientist, associate chemist, senior project manager, chemistry task manager, associate chemist, associate chemist, section manager, and senior scientist, Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), San Diego, CA

    Phillips, CR
    Senior scientist, associate chemist, senior project manager, chemistry task manager, associate chemist, associate chemist, section manager, and senior scientist, Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), San Diego, CA

    Evans, ML
    Science Applications International Corp. (SAIC), McLean, VA


    Paper ID: STP18645S

    Committee/Subcommittee: F20.13

    DOI: 10.1520/STP18645S


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