Published: Jan 1998
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One of the basic building blocks of IBM's computer technology is the thin-film interstitial metallized ceramic (IMC) substrate. The packaging of these substrates employs small input/output (IO) pins to provide both mechanical and electrical connection to the printed circuit board. In the automated manufacturing of the substrate, the input and output pins are individually conveyed by in-line vibratory conveyors. However, a non-periodic motion of these pins is observed at certain angles of conveyor table tilt that cannot be explained by classical models of friction. This paper models the motion of a single I/O pin on an in-phase, linearly oscillating conveyor using the classical model of friction and compares that result with experimental observations. It is shown here, analytically and experimentally, that when the vibratory conveyor table amplitude and the coefficient of friction between the pin and the table are sufficiently large, the pin is conveyed forward with some velocity. If the conveyor table's angle of tilt is sufficiently large and the coefficient of friction is sufficiently low, the pin may slip backwards just as fast as the conveyor table drives it forward, resulting in a net pin velocity of zero. Surrounding the condition at which the net velocity of the pin is zero is a chaotic basin of attraction in which the pin motion is non-periodic. This basin of attraction was experimentally determined to be bracketed within a range of values of the coefficient of friction. The implications of these theoretical and experimental results are discussed in terms of the practical application of in-phase vibratory conveyors in manufacturing.
vibratory conveyor(s), vibratory feeders, chaotic pin motion, coefficient of friction, boundary film(s), lubricants, table amplitude, table tilt angle, pin groove angle
Advisory engineer, IBM Printing Systems Company, IBM, Boulder, CO