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**Published:** Aug 2012

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This paper describes the application of effective source in forward calculations and the adjoint method to the solution of fast neutron fluence and activation detector activities in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and RPV cavity of a VVER-440 reactor. Its objective is the demonstration of both methods on a practical task. The effective source method applies the Boltzmann transport operator to time integrated source data in order to obtain neutron fluence and detector activities. By weighting the source data by time dependent decay of the detector activity, the result of the calculation is the detector activity. Alternatively, if the weighting is uniform with respect to time, the result is the fluence. The approach works because of the inherent linearity of radiation transport in non-multiplying time-invariant media. Integrated in this way, the source data are referred to as the effective source. The effective source in the forward calculations method thereby enables the analyst to replace numerous intensive transport calculations with a single transport calculation in which the time dependence and magnitude of the source are correctly represented. In this work, the effective source method has been expanded slightly in the following way: neutron source data were performed with fewgroup method calculation using the active core calculation code . The follow-up neutron transport calculation was performed using the neutron transport code to perform multigroup calculations. For comparison, an alternative method of calculation has been used based upon adjoint functions of the Boltzmann transport equation. Calculation of the three-dimensional (3-D) adjoint function for each required computational outcome has been obtained using the deterministic code and the cross section library BGL440. Adjoint functions appropriate to the required fast neutron flux density and neutron reaction rates have been calculated for several significant points within the RPV and RPV cavity of the VVER-440 reactor. Both of calculation methods are briefly described and the results are compared.

**Keywords:**

reactor dosimetry, VVER-440, neutron fluence, transport calculation, adjoint function

**Author Information:**

Hep, J. *Calculation Dept., Škoda JS plc., Plzen,*

Konečná, A. *Calculation Dept., Škoda JS plc., Plzen,*

Krýsl, V. *Calculation Dept., Škoda JS plc., Plzen,*

Smutný, V. *Calculation Dept., Škoda JS plc., Plzen,*

**Committee/Subcommittee:** E10.07

**DOI:** 10.1520/STP155020120047