STP1328

    Measuring Proton Extrusion from Cell Membranes of Barley Calli to Evaluate Surfactant Phytotoxicity

    Published: Jan 1997


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    Abstract

    A technique that measured extrusion of protons by barley (Hordeum vulgare) calli into the incubation solution was developed to detect surfactant phytotoxicity. Parameters for proton extrusion by barley calli were: 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D [(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid] in 10% (v/v) L1 medium using 125 mg barley calli in 3 ml incubation solution with continuous aeration. If foaming occurred, the continuous aeration could be replaced by rotary shaking at 100 rpm. Proton extrusion was similar for the three barley genotypes evaluated. Proton extrusion from barley calli and electrolyte leakage from potato (Solanum tuberosum) discs were compared for their ability to detect surfactant phytotoxicity. Anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants were evaluated for phytotoxicity. Phytotoxicity was detected at equal or lower surfactant concentrations when tested by proton extrusion (pH change) from barley calli than by electrolyte leakage (electroconductivity) from potato tubers. Surfactant solutions with high or low pH interfered with the proton extrusion method and made direct comparison difficult, while surfactant solutions with high electroconductivity reduced the sensitivity of the electroconductivity method. Thus, the proton extrusion and electrolyte leakage methods complimented each other and provided more information about surfactant phytotoxicity than either method alone.

    Keywords:

    Anionic, cationic, nonionic, surfactants, electroconductivity, cell membrane permeability


    Author Information:

    Manthey, FA
    Research Scientist, Professor, and Agricultural Research Technician, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND

    Dahleen, LS
    Research Geneticist, USDA/ARS, Fargo, ND

    Nalewaja, JD
    Research Scientist, Professor, and Agricultural Research Technician, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND

    Davidson, JD
    Research Scientist, Professor, and Agricultural Research Technician, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND


    Paper ID: STP13850S

    Committee/Subcommittee: E35.22

    DOI: 10.1520/STP13850S


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