Published: Jan 2000
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For the past 10 to 15 years, significant emphasis has been placed on evaluation of the bending strength of stone panels used for thin veneer cladding. However, failures of stone cladding on buildings are more commonly due to problems with the anchor and/or anchorage design or installation than with the bending strength of the granite panel. Judging from the calculations submitted by engineers designing stone cladding systems, many designers of stone cladding panels and anchoring systems are unaware of the issues addressed in this paper.
This paper reports the results of a series of tests according to ASTM Test Method for Strength of Individual Stone Anchorages in Dimension Stone (C1354) using two granites and an assortment of edge anchors. These tests examined possible causes for the variation in anchorage pullout loads. Situations examined included: a) variation for a single stone type tested with the same anchor configuration. b) variation for a single stone type tested with different anchor types and configurations. c) variation between different stone types tested with the same anchor configuration.
The results indicate that the most significant source of variation in anchorage pullout strengths of edge anchors is the thickness of stone material resisting the pullout load. Other sources of variation include the depth of embedment of the anchor, and the geometry of the anchor bracket and anchor cutout in the stone, but these were lower in magnitude.
The conclusions presented in this paper provide a basis for more appropriate consideration of the anchor pullout capacity in stone panels during design. They also provide a basis for possible revision of ASTM C1354 to reflect the key findings of this research.
cladding, granite, dimension stone, design, anchor, anchorage, pullout, kerf
Hyder Consulting, St Leonards, NSW
Corived Srl, Pietrasanta, LU