Effect of Low-Level Copper and Pentachlorophenol Exposure on Various Early Life Stages of Xenopus Laevis

    Published: Jan 1996

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    An evaluation of the effects of low-level copper and pentachlorophenol exposure on various early life stages of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, was performed using stage-specific and long-term continuous exposures. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted such that separate subsets of embryos and larvae from the same clutch were exposed to two toxicants, copper and pentachlorophenol, from 0 d to 4 d (standard Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay — Xenopus [FETAX]), 4 d to 8 d, 8 d to 12 d, and 12 d to 16 d. Results from two separate concentration-response experiments indicated that sensitivity to either toxicant increased in each successive time period. Longer-term exposure studies conducted for 60 to 75 days indicated that copper, but not pentachlorophenol induced reduction deficiency malformations of the hind limb at concentrations as low as 0.05 mg/L. Pentachlorophenol concentrations as low as 0.5 μg/L inhibited tail resorption. However, copper did not adversely affect the process of tail resorption. These results indicated that studies evaluating longer-term developmental processes are important in ecological hazard evaluation.


    X. laevis, FETAX, copper, pentachlorophenol, limb deficits, tail resorption

    Author Information:

    Fort, DJ
    Vice President and President, THE STOVER GROUP, Stillwater, OK

    Stover, EL
    Vice President and President, THE STOVER GROUP, Stillwater, OK

    Committee/Subcommittee: E47.09

    DOI: 10.1520/STP11708S

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