STP1419: Recent Evaluation Procedures of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Bearing Steels (Statistics of Extreme Value Method and Development of Higher Frequency Ultrasonic Testing Method)

    Kato, Y
    Reserch Engineer, Technological Research Laboratory, Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Himeji-city,

    Sato, K
    Reserch Engineer, Technological Research Laboratory, Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Himeji-city,

    Hiraoka, K
    Reserch Engineer, Technological Research Laboratory, Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Himeji-city,

    Nuri, Y
    Reserch Engineer, Technological Research Laboratory, Sanyo Special Steel Co., Ltd., Himeji-city,

    Pages: 19    Published: Jan 2002


    Abstract

    Large microscopic inclusions from 20 to 100 μm in diameter have recently been paid attention from a viewpoint of fatigue strength of steel products. As the inclusion detection capability, or probability, is practically limited by a conventional optical microscopy, however, the evaluation of the distribution of these inclusions used to be feasible only by extraction method such as acid-solution procedure. It has been found that ultrasonic testing with 50 to 12S MHz frequency, focus-type transducers is suitable to evaluate the inclusions where the echo intensity is proportional to inclusion diameter. This paper will describe recent inclusion evaluation procedures and, as a main body, the results of the application of the new ultrasonic testing system. Included are:

    The relationship between oxygen content in steel and maximum inclusion diameter in steel predicted by statistics of extreme value with the aid of microscopic image analysis, and The inclusion diameter distribution measured directly by the ultrasonic testing

    Keywords:

    nonmetallic inclusion, bearing steel, cleanliness, ultrasonic testing, micro inclusion, oxygen content, SAE 52100, statistics of extreme value method


    Paper ID: STP10854S

    Committee/Subcommittee: A01.28

    DOI: 10.1520/STP10854S


    CrossRef ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.