STP1551

    Variability of Fresh and Hardened Voids of Pervious Concrete

    Published: Nov 2012


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    Abstract

    ASTM C1688-08 currently contains only a single-operator standard deviation for the density criterion for determining allowable range. The adequacy of this criterion was put to the test in recent research undertaken for the Tennessee Concrete Association (TCA). Twenty replications of three pervious mixtures were used. The control mixture had 356-kg/m3 (600-lb/yd3) of cementing materials with a 0.3 w/cm ratio, 1533-kg/m3 (2584-lb/yd3) of No. 89 limestone coarse aggregate and no fine aggregate. The second mixture had 3.5 % river sand replacement of the coarse aggregate (by total aggregate volume) and a 0.31 w/cm ratio. The third mixture had 7 % river sand in the combined aggregate gradation and a w/cm ratio of 0.32. Coarse aggregate content was reduced to accommodate the changes in the second and third mixtures. Twenty replications of each TCA mixture yielded coefficients of variation of ASTM C1688 density values of 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 %, respectively for the control mixture, the 3.5 % sand mixture, and the 7 % sand mixture. All three mixtures met current allowable ASTM C1688 range criteria based on ASTM C670-03 multipliers. However, the variability in density increased substantially as sand and w/cm ratios were increased, possibly indicating that the variability criterion for density may need to be revised. Other findings include a good correlation between C1688 voids and pervious properties such as effective (water accessible) voids (ASTM D7063-05) and compressive strength (ASTM C39-06) indicating that C1688 voids may be useful as a mix design and adjustment tool. Twenty replications of each TCA mixture yielded coefficients of variation of ASTM C1688 void values of 1.1, 2.5, and 3.6 %, respectively, for the control mixture, 3.5 % sand mixture, and 7 % sand mixture. Information on compressive strength and effective void variability is also provided.

    Keywords:

    density, fresh concrete, pervious concrete, proctor hammer, void content


    Author Information:

    Crouch, L. K.
    Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN

    Hendrix, John P.
    McClone Construction Company, Sterling, VA

    Sparkman, Alan
    CAE, CCPf, LEED AP, Tennessee Concrete Association, Nashville, TN

    Badoe, Daniel
    Professor, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN


    Paper ID: STP104501

    Committee/Subcommittee: C09.46

    DOI: 10.1520/STP104501


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