Published: Jan 2013
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Among all available transportation options, pipelining remains the most popular and customary method of moving hydrocarbon fluids from source to destination for in-land, near-shore, and industrial applications. In the petroleum industry, all producing wells are equipped with tubular fittings that bring wellstream fluids to the production facilities. For onshore and near-shore applications, pipelines are always the most recommendable option to transport fluids to the market. Pipelines are ubiquitous in all refineries and industrial facilities because they provide the connectivity that is needed among all process equipment. Pipeline transportation provides a versatility rarely found in other modes of transportation. Advances in pipeline engineering make it possible to place pipelines in many different environments, including desserts, ocean floors, forest, and mountain ranges. In this chapter, a comprehensive review of transportation of crude oil and natural gas is presented with detailed discussions that include available and applicable standards, design criteria and constraints, analysis of single-phase flow of liquids and gases and multiphase flow, network modeling and temperature effects.
Transportation, natural gas, crude oil, pipes, design equations, design standards, network analysis, temperature effects
Ayala H., Luis F.
The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA