Published: Jan 2013
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The development of the natural gas industry has been very much influenced by the physical characteristics of natural gas. Although oil, being a liquid at ambient temperature, can be contained and transported relatively easily using simple and less-expensive technologies, natural gas is more complex and generally more expensive to store and transport because of its physical nature, which requires high pressures, very low temperatures, or both. Transportation is a major aspect of the gas industry to ensure the supply of gas to the final users. The main objective of a natural gas supply system is to produce gas from an underground field, send it to a processing facility where the gas is processed to an acceptable quality, and then move it to customers for its final use. This cannot happen without there being a continuous connection from the producing field to the consumer of the gas. This involves the concept of the natural gas value chain. Two chains currently exist in the gas industry. One scheme involves a conventional arrangement in which natural gas is transmitted all of the way from the field to the city gate or consumer facility in high-pressure pipelines. The other one is the LNG scheme, which involves the liquefaction of the gas, its transportation in bulk carriers, the regasification at the point of delivery, and the transportation to the final users, also through highpressure pipelines. This chapter reviews the technologies associated with the processing facilities involved in both existing schemes and their contribution with respect to the natural gas value chain concept. New proposed gas value chains and other technologies to monetize natural gas are also discussed.
Acid gas, boil off gas, compressed natural gas, cryogenic, dehydration, dew point, Fischer–Tropsch, liquefied natural gas, floating liquefied natural gas, gas to liquids, higher heating value
Repsol Technology, Madrid,