Published: Jan 2010
| ||Format||Pages||Price|| |
|PDF ()||17||$25||  ADD TO CART|
|Complete Source PDF ()||17||$117||  ADD TO CART|
FUEL OXYGENATES ARE WIDELY USED IN THE United States. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, as lead antiknocks were removed from motor gasoline, gasoline producers used oxygenates to offset the loss in octane number from the removal of lead. In the 1990s, oxygenates were required by the government as an emission reduction control strategy. More recently, the United States has required the use of renewable fuels in order to help reduce U.S. dependence on foreign sources of oil. In December 2007, the President signed into law the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110–140). The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) significantly expands and increases the Renewable Fuels Standard established under the Energy Policy Act of 2005 requiring the use of 9.0 billion gallons of renewable fuel in 2008, increasing to 36 billion gallons by 2022. In 2022, 21 billion gallons of the total renewable fuels requirement must be obtained from cellulosic ethanol and other advanced biofuels. Under the Clean Air Act, oxygenates have been used as an emission control strategy to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) in wintertime oxygenated fuel programs and as a required component in federal reformulated gasoline programs to help reduce ozone. The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) of 1990 require states with areas exceeding the national ambient air quality standard for carbon monoxide to implement programs requiring the sale of oxygenated gasoline containing a minimum of 2.7 weight percent oxygen during the winter months. The Clean Air Act Amendments also require the use of reformulated gasoline (RFG) in those areas of the United States with the most severe ozone pollution. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments and the Energy Policy Act of 1992, Congress enacted legislation requiring the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Fuels containing high concentrations of ethanol or methanol, where oxygenate is the primary component of the blend, qualify as alternative fuels. E85, a blend of 85 volume percent ethanol and 15 volume percent hydrocarbons, and M85, a blend of 85 volume percent methanol and 15 volume percent hydrocarbons, may be used in specially designed vehicles to comply with state and local alternative fuel programs.
Herman, Marilyn J.
Herman and Associates, Washington, DC,
Gibbs, Lewis M.
Chevron Products Company, Richmond, CA