Published: Jan 2009
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DISCUSSION IN THIS CHAPTER DEALS WITH lubricants that are used in various industrial applications. The lubricants described include turbine lubricants, compressor and refrigeration oils, food grade lubricants, and a variety of others. For each type of lubricant, criteria for selection, performance requirements, and testing are considered. The chapter is concluded by presenting representative formulations for some of these lubricant types. The lubricant market is divided into two major segments: Automotive and industrial. Automotive lubricants include engine oils, transmission fluids, automotive gear oils, tractor hydraulic fluids, and automotive greases. Industrial lubricants are used to lubricate industrial equipment which help produce a variety of materials and products for the consumer use. Such lubricants include metalworking fluids, general machine oils, slide way lubricants, industrial gear oils, hydraulic fluids, turbine lubricants, rust prevention oils, compressor oils, refrigeration oils, industrial greases, and miscellaneous others. Distinction between the two lubricant segments is not clear cut since some applications can be included in either of the two groups. For example, aviation turbines, marine engines, and railroad engines are considered by some as industrial applications and not automotive. Worldwide share of industrial lubricants is a found 45% of the total lubricant market. Physical properties of these lubricants are usually specified by ISO viscosity grades, and their performance requirements are established by the U.S. Military, OEMs, and end-users.