Published: Jan 2009
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THIS CHAPTER COVERS NON-PETROLEUM lubricant base stocks. These are either man-made (synthetic) or biological in origin. These base stocks possess certain advantages over mineral base stocks, which make their use more suitable in lubricants that are employed in applications that experience temperature extremes or operating conditions, or both. Interest in the base stocks of biological origin is primarily due to their superior environmental compatibility and availability from renewable sources. In this chapter, we discuss their chemistry, synthesis or isolation, and the advantages. As stated previously, the base stocks used for formulating lubricants are derived from three sources: petroleum, raw materials derived from petroleum, and plants and animal (natural). Here we will discuss materials that are either synthesized from petroleum-derived raw materials or are isolated from seeds and fruits. Animal fats, except for fish oils, because of their nonfluid nature at room temperature are unsuitable for use as liquid base stocks. At one time fish oils were abundantly used either as base fluids or starting materials to manufacture additives, such as sulfurized sperm oil, for use as EP agents. However, fish oils are no longer readily available because of the conservation interest against the slaughter of the oil-bearing large fish.