Published: Jan 2005
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IN THE EARLY DAYS OF THE MODERN STEEL industry, ingot teeming was done by top pouring into tapered cast iron molds for all applications. For rolled plate applications rectangular cross section molds were used. For bar and some strip applications the ingot molds were either square or round in shape, but for forgings the ingots were usually round or octagonal in cross section, and particularly for the larger sizes were almost invariably fluted to reduce the risk of surface cracking during solidification and subsequent cooling. A typical big end up, octagonal, top poured forging ingot from 1921 is shown in Fig. 2.14, and another modern 600-ton (545 t) ingot cropped and heated for forging is shown in Fig. 4.1.