Volume 31, Issue 3 (May 2003)
Application of Acoustic Emission for Measuring Crack Initiation Toughness in Instrumented Charpy Impact Testing
Acoustic Emission (AE) has been used to detect onset of ductile tearing in instrumented Charpy impact tests to enable determination of dynamic ductile tearing initiation toughness using a single specimen method. An AE based method was developed whereby a conventional instrumented impact tester is instrumented with a commercial broadband acoustic emission sensor mounted on the anvil. The results obtained using the new AE based method were compared to the results obtained by other researchers using specially developed AE sensors located inside the tup. Tests using both AE and direct measurement of the load-line displacement during the instrumented Charpy testing were conducted simultaneously on a conventional ship grade steel. V-notched and fatigue precracked test pieces were tested in the temperature range +23°C to −80°C.
The results obtained with AE monitoring were compared to those obtained using the optical Direct Displacement Interferometric Strip (DDIS) method developed by the authors. Good correlation was found between the initiation fracture toughness determined at 0.2 mm blunting and crack extension, J0.2, by the multispecimen Ductile-Brittle Transition (DBT) method and those derived from single specimens applying AE and the new interferometric method to detect ductile fracture initiation. Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) was applied to analyze the AE signals. The results showed that the different phases of AE and fracture modes could be distinguished based on characteristic frequency and time variance.