Volume 1, Issue 2 (February 2004)
Intimidation in Ice Hockey: An Exploratory Assessment
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the components of intimidation in ice hockey and to determine their effects on players, coaches, and referees. In a pilot test, hockey coaches (N = 17) from three levels of participation were invited to an informal, exploratory symposium to assess their opinions on the role of intimidation in ice hockey. The following themes emerged: a) coaches' behavior and expectations, b) observable behavior, c) player's perceived role, and d) sociological factors. A preliminary intimidation model was developed. A survey including 80 open-ended questionnaires designed to stimulate discussion on the definition of intimidation, methods used to intimidate, and factors perceived as intimidating, was distributed to players (N = 66), coaches (N = 8), and referees (N = 6). The data were analyzed using qualitative methods [1,2] and intimidation was defined. Results support a theoretical model, which serves as a point of departure for future research and visually depicts the components of intimidation and their interactions.