Volume 9, Issue 4 (April 2012)
Apparatus for Use in Evaluating Protection from Low Pressure Hot Water Jets
Use of hot water has become extensive, especially in bitumen extraction from oil sands and in the production of heavy oil. The hot water is often under pressure and is 80–90°C, which is well above temperatures that result in immediate, potentially severe burn injuries. The ASTM F2701-08 apparatus consists of a funnel through which hot liquid is hand-poured to produce a 10 s exposure. Two 40 mm diameter copper calorimeters, mounted in an insulating sheet are positioned beneath the funnel outlet and are intended to measure the energy transfer through the fabric from the hot liquid. For this research, changes were made to the apparatus and procedures to more closely simulate low pressure hot water streams found in the oil industry and to improve reproducibility. The funnel producing the liquid splash was replaced with a small pipe directly fed by a circulating hot water bath via a small pump, through a hose and valve system, allowing for consistent application of a given quantity of water at a consistent temperature and flow rate. Water temperature, flow rate, and pressure can be altered as desired. A series of fabrics varying systematically on several parameters were tested with the modified equipment. Resulting heat transfer data suggest the system differentiates well among both semi-permeable and impermeable fabrics. Specifications for hot water protection are proposed.