Volume 4, Issue 6 (June 2007)
Material Strength Considerations in Dimension Stone Anchorage Design
One of the most important aspects of designing dimension stone cladding involves determining the configuration, size, and spacing of the anchorages that will affix the stone panels to the underlying building substrate. Information from many sources, including material strength testing, anchorage strength testing, and knowledge of the stress states created within stone cladding panels by loaded anchorages, is crucial to this process. In this paper, relationships are examined between material strength, anchorage strength, and induced stress states for four common anchorage configurations: edge dowels, Type 31 back anchors, and edge kerfs with strap and split-tail anchors. For each of these four anchor types, the relevant material and anchorage strength test data obtained for a medium-grained granite, in conjunction with finite element computer analyses of the stress states induced in the stone panels by the anchors and within the material strength test specimens, are presented. Material strength test configurations evaluated include ASTM C 880 Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Dimension Stone, ASTM C 99 Standard Test Method for Modulus of Rupture of Dimension Stone, and a proposed test for punching shear currently under consideration by ASTM Subcommittee C18.01. All anchorage strength tests were performed in accordance with ASTM C 1354 Standard Test Method for Strength of Individual Stone Anchorages in Dimension Stone.