Published Online: 13 September 2013
Page Count: 14
(Received 13 March 2013; accepted 29 July 2013)
This paper describes a new apparatus and techniques for performing deformation measurements using particle image velocimetry in the centrifuge environment. The new system includes camera, lighting, and control equipment that facilitates image capture at least 30 times faster than that in legacy systems. Methods for optimizing the addition of artificial seeding on the exposed plane of a geotechnical model are also set out. These techniques ensure that the precision of the deformation calculations is optimized even in models with multiple layers of different soils, fully harnessing the method's capabilities. An example application of a flat footing penetrating sand overlying clay is used to illustrate the performance of the equipment and the artificial seeding optimization technique. Deformation fields at the point of peak resistance during punch-through are presented in the form of vector fields, normalized displacement contours, and shear strain contours. It is shown that the advances in equipment and artificial seeding allow both macroscopic and grain-scale deformation features to be identified. These analyses highlight not only the benefits of the new technology, but also the need for carefully optimized experimental procedures to maximize the measurement precision.
Paper ID: GTJ20130044