Volume 28, Issue 3 (May 2005)
Measurement of Gmax and Estimation of K0 of Saturated Clay Using Bender Elements in an Oedometer
Recent developments in bender element technique have made it possible to determine Gmax and estimate K0 of soils under complex loading conditions. By measuring the shear wave velocities in different shear planes, the cross anisotropy in Gmax of soil induced by axial-symmetric loading can also be determined. The shear wave velocities can also be used to estimate the horizontal earth pressure coefficient at rest K0. This paper reports on an experimental setup that uses bender elements installed in an oedometer to measure shear wave velocities in four shear planes of a saturated clay specimen under different consolidation pressures. The data is used to investigate the cross anisotropy of stiffness in clay due to a K0 stress condition. The measured Gmax is compared with the results from a commonly used empirical formula. The measured shear wave velocities on different shear planes are also used to calculate K0 of clay under different consolidation pressures and compared with results from empirical formulae. The applied stress condition includes loading, unloading, and reloading of up to 22 cycles, thus providing information to study the influence of repeated loading on Gmax and K0 of a saturated clay.