Volume 25, Issue 4 (December 2002)
Properties of Singapore Marine Clays Improved by Cement Mixing
Stabilization of soft ground by the deep cement mixing (DCM) method has become an increasingly popular method to improve stability in an excavation in soft clay and to limit movement in adjacent sub-structures. The desired increase in strength and stiffness to fulfil the intended functions can be achieved provided that the right mix proportion is adopted. To proceed with this kind of soil improvement, prediction of the strength and stiffness of the improved soil is necessary. Due to a short history of the DCM method in Singapore, there is limited data on the improved properties of local clays. This study is conducted to bridge that gap and also extends its usefulness to clays elsewhere. In the paper, the influences of three main constituents of the mixture, namely clay, water, and cement on the strength development of Singapore marine clays improved by cement mixing are investigated. Based on the experimental results, it is shown that a convenient normalization can produce a consistent pattern for evaluation of improved strength of clays from different parts of Singapore. This normalization is also shown to work for one Japanese clay. Correlations between strength and stiffness of the improved clay are also obtained. Lastly, it is shown that for a cement mixed clay there is a continual increase in strength and stiffness with time. This will help to reduce ground movement, and it will also increase the bending moment in the retaining wall. Both aspects must be considered in a design.