Volume 27, Issue 1 (January 2004)
Measurement of Quasi-Elastic Stiffness Parameters of Dense Toyoura Sand in Hollow Cylinder Apparatus and Triaxial Apparatus with Bender Elements
Quasi-elastic stiffness parameters of dense Toyoura sand were measured at various stress states during similar consolidation and p′-constant shear tests in a hollow cylinder apparatus and a triaxial apparatus equipped with local deformation transducers and bender elements. Test results from these two test setups were compared. Although the Young's moduli from the triaxial apparatus were slightly lower than those from the hollow cylinder apparatus, they followed approximately the same power laws with the effective normal stresses. The shear modulus Gvh from the hollow cylinder apparatus was almost the same as that from the shear wave velocity measurement in the triaxial apparatus. The Poisson's ratios were also similar from both test setups. The vertical Young's modulus was found to be smaller than the horizontal Young's modulus. The anisotropy in Young's moduli followed a power law with the effective stress ratio. However, the Poisson's ratios were not dependent on the mean effective pressure or the shear stress level. The symmetry of the stiffness matrix was also examined.