Volume 23, Issue 1 (March 2000)
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for Driven Piles Using Dynamic Methods—A Florida Perspective
The parameters for load and resistance factor design (LRFD) of driven piles using dynamic methods are presented based on a database of 218 pile cases in Florida. Eight dynamic methods were studied: ENR, modified ENR, FDOT, and Gates driving formulas, Case Analysis with Wave Analysis Program (CAPWAP), Case Method for Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA), Paikowsky's energy method, and Sakai's energy method. It was demonstrated that the modern methods based on wave mechanics, such as CAPWAP, PDA, and Paikowsky's energy methods, are roughly twice as cost effective to reach the target reliability indices of 2.0 to 2.5 (failure probability = 0.62 to 2.5%) as the ENR and modified ENR driving formulas. The Gates formula, when used separately on piles with Davisson capacities smaller or larger than 1779 kN, has an accuracy comparable to the modern methods. The utilizable measured Davisson capacity, defined as φ/λ (ratio of resistance/mean capacity) obtained from testing at beginning of redrive (BOR), is only slightly larger than the end of drive (EOD) values. Furthermore, past practice with driving formulas reveals the existence of a large redundancy in pile groups against failure. The latter suggests the use of a lower relatively reliability target index, βT = 2.0 (pf = 2.5%) for single pile design. Also, the utilizable measured Davisson capacity, φ/λ, for all the dynamic methods studied, is quite similar to published values (Lai et al. 1995; Sidi 1985) for static estimates from in situ tests.