Volume 21, Issue 3 (September 1998)
Application of Bender Elements in Measuring Gmax of Sand Under K0 Condition
A new application of bender elements to measure the small strain shear modulus of sand in multiple shear planes under anisotropic loading is developed. The tests were conducted in a specially designed oedometer with the side of the ring smoothed by a Teflon sheet. The soil used in the tests is clean angular pool filter sand. The effects of size of bender elements on the results of shear wave velocity measurement are discussed. Shear modulus in four different shear planes during a loading-unloading cycle is presented. The results of experiments are compared with the Hardin-Blanford equation on Gmax, which shows good agreement. The influence of side friction of the oedometer is investigated.