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A ring torsion apparatus was used to evaluate friction between-dry sand and a steel surface over wide ranges of surface roughness and sand density. The deformation of sand near the steel surface was observed by X-radiography. The apparatus is suitable for evaluating skin friction under well-defined test conditions. The test results show that frictional resistance is primarily governed by the roughness of the steel surface, irrespective of the density of the sand.
Professor, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama,
Senior Engineer, Toa Harbor Works, Ltd., Yokohama,
Stock #: GTJ10783J