Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 1984)
Elastic-Wave Velocities and Liquefaction Potential
Cyclic triaxial liquefaction tests are used to establish a direct relationship between liquefaction resistance and shear- or compressive-wave velocities in saturated sand. Transducers for generating and receiving elastic waves have been built into the end caps of a triaxial specimen, producing a 3500-Hz shear wave and a 150-kHz compressive wave. Both the fluid-wave and the shear-wave velocities are found to be sensitive to sand type as well as to differences in fabric and stress history for the same sand. Results for six sands of different origins and gradations show that characteristic relationships between elastic-wave velocities and liquefaction resistance can be established for each material. This conclusion suggests that field measurements of elastic-wave velocities may be used to reconstitute laboratory specimens to their in-place liquefaction resistance. On the other hand, velocity measurements alone will not quantify liquefaction resistance, since the resistance-velocity relationship is material dependent.