Volume 50, Issue 1 (January 2005)
Three-dimensional Cranio-Facial Reconstruction in Forensic Identification: Latest Progress and New Tendencies in the 21st Century
Three-dimensional (3D) cranio-facial reconstruction can be useful in the identification of an unknown body. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years had significant repercussions on this domain. New facial soft tissue depth data for children and adults have been obtained using ultrasound, CT-scans and radiographies. New guidelines for facial feature properties such as nose projection, eye protrusion or mouth width, have been suggested, but also older theories and "rules of thumbs" have been critically evaluated based on digital technology. New fast, flexible and objective 3D reconstruction computer programs are in full development. The research on craniofacial reconstruction since the beginning of the 21st century is presented, highlighting computer-aided 3D facial reconstruction. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating and (re)questioning the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions.