Volume 49, Issue 6 (November 2004)

    Highly Sensitive Screening Method for Nitroaromatic, Nitramine and Nitrate Ester Explosives by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Atmospheric Pressure Ionization—Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-API-MS) in Forensic Applications

    (Received 25 August 2003; accepted 18 May 2004)

    Published Online: November

    CODEN: JFSOAD

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    Abstract

    A highly sensitive screening method based on high performance liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-API-MS) has been developed for the analysis of 21 nitroaromatic, nitramine and nitrate ester explosives, which include the explosives most commonly encountered in forensic science. Two atmospheric pressure ionization (API) methods, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI), and various experimental conditions have been applied to allow for the detection of all 21 explosive compounds. The limit of detection (LOD) in the full-scan mode has been found to be 0.012–1.2 ng on column for the screening of most explosives investigated. For nitrobenzene, an LOD of 10 ng was found with the APCI method in the negative mode. Although the detection of nitrobenzene, 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrotoluene is hindered by the difficult ionization of these compounds, we have found that by forming an adduct with glycine, LOD values in the range of 3–16 ng on column can be achieved. Compared with previous screening methods with thermospray ionization, the API method has distinct advantages, including simplicity and stability of the method applied, an extended screening range and a low detection limit for the explosives studied.


    Author Information:

    van de Craats, AM
    Netherlands Forensic Institute,

    de Bruyn, PCAM
    Netherlands Forensic Institute,

    Xu, X
    Netherlands Forensic Institute,


    Stock #: JFS2003279

    ISSN: 0022-1198

    DOI: 10.1520/JFS2003279

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    Author
    Title Highly Sensitive Screening Method for Nitroaromatic, Nitramine and Nitrate Ester Explosives by High Performance Liquid Chromatography—Atmospheric Pressure Ionization—Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-API-MS) in Forensic Applications
    Symposium , 0000-00-00
    Committee E30