The Identification of 2-Phenoxyethanol in Ballpoint Inks Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry—Relevance to Ink Dating

    Volume 49, Issue 1 (January 2004)

    ISSN: 0022-1198

    CODEN: JFSOAD

    Published Online: 17 December 2003

    Page Count: 5


    Cantu, AA
    United States Secret Service, Forensic Services Division, Washington, DC

    LaPorte, GM
    United States Secret Service, Forensic Services Division, Washington, DC

    Wilson, JD
    chemist contractor, United States Secret Service, Forensic Services Division, Washington, DC

    Mancke, SA
    chemist contractor, United States Secret Service, Forensic Services Division, Washington, DC

    Fortunato, SL
    United States Secret Service, Forensic Services Division, Washington, DC

    (Received 21 June 2003; accepted 4 September 2003)

    Abstract

    Developing and implementing a generally accepted procedure for the dating of ink found on documents using dynamic approaches has been a very formidable undertaking by forensic document examiners. 2-Phenoxyethanol (PE), a common volatile organic compound found in ballpoint inks, has been recognized for over a decade as a solvent that evaporates as ink ages. More recently, investigations have focused on the solvent loss ratio of PE prior to and after heating. To determine how often PE occurs in ink formulations, the authors analyzed 633 ballpoint inks utilizing a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. 2-Phenoxyethanol was identified in 85% (237/279) and 83% (293/354) of black and blue inks, respectively.


    Paper ID: JFS2003217

    DOI: 10.1520/JFS2003217

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    Author
    Title The Identification of 2-Phenoxyethanol in Ballpoint Inks Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry—Relevance to Ink Dating
    Symposium , 0000-00-00
    Committee E30