(Received 25 June 2003; accepted 21 June 2003)
Published Online: November
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The human sex test in forensic multiplexes is based on the amelogenin gene on both the X and Y chromosomes commonly used in sex genotyping. In this study of 338 male individuals in a Malaysian population comprising Malays, Chinese and Indians, using the AmpFCSTR® Profiler Plus™ kit, the amelogenin test gave a significant proportion of null alleles in the Indian ethnic group (3.6% frequency) and 0.88% frequency in the Malay ethnic group due to a deletion of the gene on the Y chromosome. This sex test also failed in a forensic casework sample. Failure of the amelogenin test highlights the need for more reliable sex determination than is offered by the amelogenin locus in the Malay and Indian populations. The gender of the Indian-Malay amelogenin nulls was confirmed by the presence of three Y-STR alleles (DYS438, DYS390 and DYS439). For the Indian ethnic group, one of the Y-STR forms a stable haplotype with the amelogenin null. The amelogenin-deletion individuals also showed a null with a male-specific minisatellite MSY1, indicating that a very large deletion was involved that included the amelogenin and the MSY1 loci on the short arm of the Y chromosomes (Yp).
Stock #: JFS2003018