Volume 47, Issue 3 (May 2002)
In Vivo Facial Tissue Depth Measurements for White British Children
This paper reports the results of a study of facial tissue depth measurement in White British children of both sexes, aged between 11 and 18 years. The purpose of this research was to increase the information available upon tissue depth data for children, primarily for use in forensic facial reconstruction. Facial tissue depths were measured at 21 anatomical points using ultrasonic echo-location. The mid-philtral, upper lip border and lower lip border points showed consistently larger tissue depths in the males than the females, and the zygomatic attachment showed consistently larger tissue depths in the females than the males. The males showed a general increase in tissue depth with an increase in age at all the mid-line facial points and the cheek points. The females showed increased tissue depth with age at all the points except the infra-orbital, lateral orbital, mid-zygomatic arch and mid-mandibular points. A table of mean tissue depths was developed for males and females divided into two-yearly age groups.