Volume 46, Issue 2 (March 2001)

    An Assessment of Four Solvents for the Recovery of 2-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and Capsaicins from “CS” and “Pepper” Type Lachrymator Sprays, and an Examination of Their Persistence on Cotton Fabric

    (Received 22 February 2000; accepted 10 May 2000)

    CODEN: JFSOAD

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    Abstract

    The rising incidence of assaults involving lachrymator sprays has led to an increase in items being submitted to this laboratory for the analysis of the associated chemical residues. The following work was undertaken to identify an efficient solvent with which to extract the compounds of interest from cotton fabric. The persistence and subsequent recovery of such compounds was also examined following protracted exposure to wind and rain.

    Ethyl acetate was established as the most efficient solvent of those examined for the extraction of 2-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and a range of capsaicins from “CS Gas” and “Pepper” sprays respectively. Controlled experiments undertaken showed that capsaicins were recoverable after 72 h of exposure to the “elements” and 2-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile was still recoverable after one week.


    Author Information:

    Lewis, K
    Lothian and Borders Police Forenis Science Laboratory, Edinburgh Scotland,

    Lewis, RJ
    Lothian and Borders Police Forenis Science Laboratory, Edinburgh Scotland,


    Stock #: JFS14971J

    ISSN: 0022-1198

    DOI: 10.1520/JFS14971J

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    Title An Assessment of Four Solvents for the Recovery of 2-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and Capsaicins from “CS” and “Pepper” Type Lachrymator Sprays, and an Examination of Their Persistence on Cotton Fabric
    Symposium , 0000-00-00
    Committee E30