Volume 45, Issue 2 (March 2000)

    Physical and Chemical Evidence Remaining After the Explosion of Large Improvised Bombs. Part 2: Firings of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate/Sugar Mixtures

    (Received 4 March 1999; accepted 12 July 1999)

    CODEN: JFSOAD

      Format Pages Price  
    PDF Version 16 $25   ADD TO CART


    Abstract

    Six test firings of large improvised explosive devices were carried out. The principal objectives of the firings were to measure the physical effects of the explosions upon representative objects placed nearby and to recover any chemical traces deposited on these objects. The results are intended for use as an aid in determining the approximate size and type of an explosive employed in terrorist attacks. Three 454 kg charges of a mixture of calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) fertilizer and sugar, and three 2268 kg charges of a similar mixture, all confined in cylindrical steel containers were fired. Each charge was surrounded by 19 road signs mounted on posts and four vehicles, to act as witness materials. The analysis of aqueous swab extracts taken from the witness materials after firing showed the recovery of nitrate, ammonium and low levels of glucose. No sucrose was detected. Nitrate was usually recovered in greater quantities than ammonium and recovery generally decreased with increasing distance from the charges in any given direction. Quantities recovered from objects placed at the same distance in different directions varied considerably. Patterns of physical damage to the witness materials could be discerned according to their distance from the charge and the size of the charge. The velocities of detonation and air blast effects were measured.


    Author Information:

    Lowe, A
    Forensic Explosives Laboratory, Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Fort Halstead, Sevenoaks, Kent

    Cullum, H
    Forensic Explosives Laboratory, Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Fort Halstead, Sevenoaks, Kent

    Marshall, M
    Forensic Explosives Laboratory, Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Fort Halstead, Sevenoaks, Kent

    Hubbard, P
    Defence Evaluation and Research Agency, Sevenoaks, Kent,


    Stock #: JFS14686J

    ISSN: 0022-1198

    DOI: 10.1520/JFS14686J

    ASTM International
    is a member of CrossRef.

    Author
    Title Physical and Chemical Evidence Remaining After the Explosion of Large Improvised Bombs. Part 2: Firings of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate/Sugar Mixtures
    Symposium , 0000-00-00
    Committee E30