Volume 45, Issue 1 (January 2000)
In Vivo Facial Tissue Depth Measurements for Children and Adults
This study reports results of a facial tissue depth measurements project conducted over a two-year period on a modern sample of children and adults of both sexes and varying ages and races. The purpose of this research was to increase available tissue depth data for children and update facial tissue depth measurements for American adults. Most volunteers for this project were patients or visitors to the pediatric clinic at the Louisiana State University Medical Center, School of Dentistry, in New Orleans, Using state-of-the-art ultrasound technology, we scanned 551 children and 256 adults at 19 points across the face. Thirteen of the scanned points were traditional landmarks while six others were areas not measured by previous researchers or were points for which very little data exist for both children and adults. For this presentation, we analyzed data for 515 children and 197 adults. Results of Pearson's correlations, analysis of variance, and paired t-tests indicate that age, sex, and race are significant factors when considering tissue depth means for different measurement locations across the human face. These new standards are compared to the work of other researchers. Our results provide valuable assistance in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional facial reproductions and superimpositions.