(Received 12 October 1993; accepted 3 January 1994)
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In the Dutch Forensic Laboratory firing range is determined by means of a chemographical method. The applied method produces colors with the elements lead and barium in conventional ammunition. This method cannot be applied for the determination of the firing range of leadfree ammunition. Because of developments in the eighties and the increasing use of leadfree ammunition, a new method with another coloring reagent has been developed.
Elements present in the gunshot residues of, for example, 9 mm para Action-3 Sintox ammunition used by the Dutch police forces, are copper, zinc and titanium. Our contribution to the method for the determination of the firing range is a combination of the material cellophane film, the coloring reagent zincon and the design of a simple stretching device.
Dependent on weapon, ammunition and clothing a firing range up to about 1.5 m can be determined by means of this method. To conclude, a survey is given of the shoot-outs investigated in The Netherlands in which leadfree ammunition was used.
Senior Forensic Scientist, Forensic Science Laboratory, Rijswijk, GD
Stock #: JFS13677J