Experiences with Zincon, A useful Reagent for the Determination of Firing Range with Respect to Leadfree Ammunition

    Volume 39, Issue 4 (July 1994)

    ISSN: 0022-1198

    CODEN: JFSOAD

    Page Count: 7


    Beijer, R
    Senior Forensic Scientist, Forensic Science Laboratory, Rijswijk, GD

    (Received 12 October 1993; accepted 3 January 1994)

    Abstract

    In the Dutch Forensic Laboratory firing range is determined by means of a chemographical method. The applied method produces colors with the elements lead and barium in conventional ammunition. This method cannot be applied for the determination of the firing range of leadfree ammunition. Because of developments in the eighties and the increasing use of leadfree ammunition, a new method with another coloring reagent has been developed.

    Elements present in the gunshot residues of, for example, 9 mm para Action-3 Sintox ammunition used by the Dutch police forces, are copper, zinc and titanium. Our contribution to the method for the determination of the firing range is a combination of the material cellophane film, the coloring reagent zincon and the design of a simple stretching device.

    Dependent on weapon, ammunition and clothing a firing range up to about 1.5 m can be determined by means of this method. To conclude, a survey is given of the shoot-outs investigated in The Netherlands in which leadfree ammunition was used.


    Paper ID: JFS13677J

    DOI: 10.1520/JFS13677J

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    Title Experiences with Zincon, A useful Reagent for the Determination of Firing Range with Respect to Leadfree Ammunition
    Symposium , 0000-00-00
    Committee E30