The Identification of Gunshot Residue Particles from Lead-Free Sintox Ammunition

    Volume 39, Issue 2 (March 1994)

    ISSN: 0022-1198

    CODEN: JFSOAD

    Page Count: 5


    Himberg, K
    Forensic Scientist, and Director, National Bureau of Investigation, Crime Laboratory, Suvilahdenkatu, Helsinki,

    Gunaratnam, L
    Forensic Scientist, and Director, National Bureau of Investigation, Crime Laboratory, Suvilahdenkatu, Helsinki,

    (Received 22 April 1993; accepted 20 July 1993)

    Abstract

    Scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) was used to identify the gunshot residue (GSR) particles discharged by lead-free Sintox ammunition. Sintox GSR particles are characterized by spheroidal particles mainly consisting of titanium (Ti) and zinc (Zn). The results obtained in this study are in agreement with the hypothesis that GSR particles are formed by rapid condensation and solidification of vaporized and molten primer and bullet materials as a result of sudden temperature quench. The surface morphology of Ti-Zn particles is an essential criterion for their identification as gunshot residue particles and for discrimination against Ti-Zn environmental particles.


    Paper ID: JFS13626J

    DOI: 10.1520/JFS13626J

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    Title The Identification of Gunshot Residue Particles from Lead-Free Sintox Ammunition
    Symposium , 0000-00-00
    Committee E30