Volume 39, Issue 2 (March 1994)
The Identification of Gunshot Residue Particles from Lead-Free Sintox Ammunition
Scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) was used to identify the gunshot residue (GSR) particles discharged by lead-free Sintox ammunition. Sintox GSR particles are characterized by spheroidal particles mainly consisting of titanium (Ti) and zinc (Zn). The results obtained in this study are in agreement with the hypothesis that GSR particles are formed by rapid condensation and solidification of vaporized and molten primer and bullet materials as a result of sudden temperature quench. The surface morphology of Ti-Zn particles is an essential criterion for their identification as gunshot residue particles and for discrimination against Ti-Zn environmental particles.