Volume 34, Issue 1 (January 1989)
Rapid Confirmation of Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique (EMIT®) Cocaine Positive Urine Samples by Capillary Gas-Liquid Chromatography/Nitrogen Phosphorus Detection (GLC/NPD)
A rapid gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) method was developed for the confirmation of benzoylecgonine (BE) positive urine samples screened by the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT®) assay. The procedure is performed by solvent extraction of BE from 0.1 or 0.2 mL of urine, followed by an aqueous wash of the solvent and evaporation. The dried residue was derivatized with 50 µL of pentafluoropropionic anhydride and 25 µL of pentafluoropropropanol at 90°C for 15 min. The derivatizing reagents were evaporated to dryness, and the derivatized BE, and cocaine if present, were reconstituted and injected into the gas chromatograph. The column was a 15-m by 0.2-mm fused silica capillary column, coated with 0.25 µm of DB-1, terminating in a nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD). Cocaine and the pentafluoro BE derivatives retention times were 3.2 and 2.6 min, respectively. Nalorphine was used as reference or internal standard with a retention time of 4.78 min. The complete procedure can be performed in approximately 1.5 h. The EMIT cutoff between positive and negative urine samples is 300 ng/mL of BE. The lower limit of sensitivity of this method is 25 ng of BE extracted from urine. Validation studies resulted in confirmation of 101 out of 121 EMIT cocaine positive urine samples that could not be confirmed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This represents 84% confirmation efficiency.