(Received 26 February 1976; accepted 11 March 1976)
Published Online: October
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Since the initial discovery of precipitating antibodies by Kraus in 1897  and the demonstration of the precipitin reaction with human blood in vitro by Uhlenhuth in 1901 , this reaction has become one of the essential tools of the forensic immunologist. Oudin's tube technique (single diffusion in one dimension) , Petrie's plate method (single radial diffusion) , Oakley's method of double diffusion in one dimension , Ouchterlony's immunodiffusion (double diffusion in two dimensions) , or Culliford's crossed-over electrophoresis  have been the generally accepted methods for the determination of the species origin of bloodstains. Recently, sensitized latex particles have been used with precipitin sera for the identification of the species of origin of bloodstains . The basic principle of these methods is to bring the bloodstain extract into close-reacting contact with a suitable antiserum. The success of the reaction usually depends on the quality of the antiserum and the presence of soluble precipitin antigens in the bloodstain extract.
Assistant professor of forensic sciences, University of New Haven, New Haven, Conn.
De Forest, PR
Associate professor of criminalistics, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, N.Y.
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