(Received 2 April 2003; accepted 14 October 2003)
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Fine aggregate characteristics have an important influence on water demand and related properties of concrete. Several test methods for measurement of fine aggregate angularity are reported in the literature. These tests typically provide a single number that represents the bulk, or average angularity of the sand. An understanding of the relationship between bulk measures of angularity, individual particle geometry and shape characteristics, and concrete properties is important to aggregate producers, concrete suppliers, consulting engineers, other design professionals, particularly as existing deposits of sand are consumed and alternate sources must be developed. As part of a comprehensive research program on manufactured sand properties and their effects on fresh and hardened concrete properties, an image analysis technique was developed to determine the shape characteristics by photographing and analyzing sets of individual grains of sand. The outlines of the grains were analyzed using a variety of geometrically derived characteristics. The relationship between particle shape characteristics and a common measure of bulk angularity, void content (ASTM C 1252), was then examined. Results of the study indicated that void content was significantly influenced by the presence of deep indentations in the surface of the sand particle and deviations from a cubical particle shape.
Associate Professor, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC
Senior Engineer, MACTEC Engineering and Consulting, Inc., Raleigh, NC
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