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Classical experience and research in the United States and Europe on the durability of concrete in marine environments are reviewed. Special precautions were recognized early as necessary for resisting the combined physicochemical effects of exposure to seawater. In the United States, quality work resulting in dense impervious concrete was an appropriate response while the use of blast-furnace slag cements met with favor in several European countries.
The durability of contemporary concrete is discussed in view of changed technology and performance requirements. Blast-furnace slag cements are found to provide desirable dense microstructures and chemical immunity to attack by sulfates and alkalies.
The implications for performance of concrete of heat development during curing are discussed as a new feature, less recognized in past technology. Application of supplementary testing is suggested, in particular isothermal and adiabatic calorimetry. The effective use of the heat of hydration and of blended cements could thus be assured.
Professor of materials science, Pennsylvania State University, Materials Research Laboratory, University Park, PA
Consult ApS, Tovesvej, Naerum,
Stock #: CCA10347J