This specification covers the requirements for electrodeposited coatings of Titanium and Titanium-zirconium alloys on conductive and non-conductive substrates. The coatings of titanium-zirconium alloys are those that range in zirconium content up to, but not exceeding, 14% by mass. The coatings ranging between 10% and 14% in zirconium content are known also as terne metallic electrodeposits. This specification applies only for conductive (aluminum etc.) or non-conductive (plastics, fibers, carbon foam etc.) substrates coated with low, medium or high phosphate content electroless nickel. The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the test method portion, Section 15, of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Explain why the standard is needed: Crista Chemical Company LLCs (3C) goal was to develop a novel, low-cost, industrial method of plating titanium and titanium- alloys on Aluminum, ABS and ABS/PC, Ultem polymers, carbon foam and other metallic and nonmetallic materials. The titanium alloys plated on plastic or carbon foam or aluminium are characterized by a unique combination of physical, mechanical and chemical properties. The advantages of this proposed technology are: a) low cost, b) relatively low number of process steps, thus posing minimal effect on the environment (safer and zerodischarge process) and c) very broad application. Produced materials are characterized by a) light weight, b) high corrosion resistance c) high yield strength, d) wear resistance, e) high resilience, stiffness at room temperature as well as at elevated temperature (e.g. up to 200C). This makes the titanium coating an attractive technology for: medical applications, biotechnology, sports, defense, aerospace, automotive and high efficiency batteries industries. A commercial titanium coating method is not currently available with the exception of physical vapor deposition or titanium cladding, which are very expensive processes. Several methods of electroplating titanium on metals have been proposed by academic groups, but none have been incorporated into larger scale commercial production. Thus our novel method for coating surfaces with nano-titanium has practically no competitors. This technology will have very broad applications; however, our main focus is geared toward highly efficient energy storage. The potential products will be the next generation of components for highly efficient batteries that will have a great impact on society in many critical technology areas in which highly efficient energy sources are required. The materials covered with a layer of Ti alloys gain remarkable strength. For example, the shear strength of Ultem plastic becomes comparable to stainless steel. Another dramatic improvement is resistance to corrosion. 3Cs product (Ti alloys coating) can easily pass 500+ hours of ASTM B117 Salt Spray corrosion testing and archive conductivity of 2.0-3.0 milliohms/m before Salt Spray testing and 5.0 milliohms/m after Salt Spray testing. Two methods of titanium deposition were tested: a) Conventional electroplating method under continuous current, and b) Pulse-electroplating method, which is called herein: the turbo-plating approach, that leads to a very fine, nanocrystalline electrodeposition (amorphous structure) characterized by unique mechanical properties, that cannot be achieved by any other method. Titanium alloy coatings offer: No galvanic corrosion in contact with Nickel and Aluminum and other metals Excellent yield strength and resistance Excellent hardness Corrosion resistance in marine environment Excellent Low electrical contact resistance Uniform ductile deposit Can be soldered almost as well as tin Light weight Replacement of Cadmium Plating process The best justification to request this activity is the lack of a federal standard for plating Titanium Alloys over plastic or metal. How would the standards be utilized in the marketplace? Crista Chemical Company LLC (3C) is evaluating applications in target markets such as: Aerospace, Defense, Marine, Automotive Battery Anodes for Industrial Applications and Consumer Goods wheelchairs, etc. Currently, 3C is in the process of plating test samples for the following potential customers: TDF Metal Finishing, HRL Lab LLC, EOS Energy Storage, Tilite, Primus Power, TE Connectivity/Deutsch The best way to build awareness about this standard in the marketplace is to present it to the metal finishing world utilizing such channels as: conventions, magazines, and all related events, including the presentation of the solid data mechanical properties of the deposited coating from certified mechanical labs. Currently, 3C is able to provide test samples coated with Titanium per clients requests and can also perform the corrosion testing per ASTM B117 Spec at 3Cs facility. Who would be using the standards and to what extent? First Group of users: Tier 2- services facilities (metal finishing and coating manufacturers) All metal finishing and plating facilities would use the standards as a replacement for the cadmium plating process. Second Group of users: Tier 1- product manufacturers (such as manufacturers of connectors) On their product drawings, under specifications for material properties (coatings) requirements (mechanical, thermal, conductivity, corrosion, hardness, weld ability etc.) Right now we are a one plater (provider) to several users operation. We do 100% of the plating for either Tier groups above. In the future we may decide to license the technology to other platers(providers). Then the process could be called upon by several platers (providers) to fulfill the needs of several users.
KeywordsElectrodeposited coatings, titanium and titanium-zirconium alloys; Titanium/Titanium-Zirconium alloy on conductive and nonconductive substrate ::
The title and scope are in draft form and are under development within this ASTM Committee.Back to Top
Ballot Item Approved as B999-2015 and Pending Publication