ASTM E112 - 13 Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size


    Citing ASTM Standards Citation data is made available by participants in CrossRefs Cited-by Linking service. A comprehensive list of citations to this standard are listed here.

    A6/A6M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Structural Steel Bars, Plates, Shapes, and Sheet Piling

    A20/A20M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels

    A29/A29M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Steel Bars, Carbon and Alloy, Hot-Wrought

    A125 Standard Specification for Steel Springs, Helical, Heat-Treated

    A131/A131M Standard Specification for Structural Steel for Ships

    A182/A182M Standard Specification for Forged or Rolled Alloy and Stainless Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and Valves and Parts for High-Temperature Service

    A193/A193M Standard Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications

    A194/A194M Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both

    A213/A213M Standard Specification for Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy-Steel Boiler, Superheater, and Heat-Exchanger Tubes

    A240/A240M Standard Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications

    A249/A249M Standard Specification for Welded Austenitic Steel Boiler, Superheater, Heat-Exchanger, and Condenser Tubes

    A255 Standard Test Methods for Determining Hardenability of Steel

    A266/A266M Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings for Pressure Vessel Components

    A289/A289M Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Forgings for Nonmagnetic Retaining Rings for Generators

    A295/A295M Standard Specification for High-Carbon Anti-Friction Bearing Steel

    A304 Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Bars Subject to End-Quench Hardenability Requirements

    A312/A312M Standard Specification for Seamless, Welded, and Heavily Cold Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

    A322 Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Alloy, Standard Grades

    A372/A372M Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings for Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels

    A376/A376M Standard Specification for Seamless Austenitic Steel Pipe for High-Temperature Service

    A403/A403M Standard Specification for Wrought Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings

    A434 Standard Specification for Steel Bars, Alloy, Hot-Wrought or Cold-Finished, Quenched and Tempered

    A437/A437M Standard Specification for Stainless and Alloy-Steel Turbine-Type Bolting Specially Heat Treated for High-Temperature Service

    A479/A479M Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes for Use in Boilers and Other Pressure Vessels

    A484/A484M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Stainless Steel Bars, Billets, and Forgings

    A489 Standard Specification for Carbon Steel Lifting Eyes

    A510/A510M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wire Rods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel, and Alloy Steel

    A521/A521M Standard Specification for Steel, Closed-Impression Die Forgings for General Industrial Use

    A534 Standard Specification for Carburizing Steels for Anti-Friction Bearings

    A555/A555M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Stainless Steel Wire and Wire Rods

    A565/A565M Standard Specification for Martensitic Stainless Steel Bars for High-Temperature Service

    A574 Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Socket-Head Cap Screws

    A574M Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Socket-Head Cap Screws (Metric)

    A579/A579M Standard Specification for Superstrength Alloy Steel Forgings

    A592/A592M Standard Specification for High-Strength Quenched and Tempered Low-Alloy Steel Forged Parts for Pressure Vessels

    A623 Standard Specification for Tin Mill Products, General Requirements

    A623M Standard Specification for Tin Mill Products, General Requirements [Metric]

    A684/A684M Standard Specification for Steel, Strip, High-Carbon, Cold-Rolled

    A688/A688M Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Feedwater Heater Tubes

    A689 Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Bars for Springs

    A711/A711M Standard Specification for Steel Forging Stock

    A713 Standard Specification for Steel Wire, High-Carbon Spring, for Heat-Treated Components

    A729/A729M Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Axles, Heat-Treated, for Mass Transit and Electric Railway Service

    A765/A765M Standard Specification for Carbon Steel and Low-Alloy Steel Pressure-Vessel-Component Forgings with Mandatory Toughness Requirements

    A788/A788M Standard Specification for Steel Forgings, General Requirements

    A805/A805M Standard Specification for Steel, Flat Wire, Carbon, Cold-Rolled

    A814/A814M Standard Specification for Cold-Worked Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipe

    A866 Standard Specification for Medium Carbon Anti-Friction Bearing Steel

    A891/A891M Standard Specification for Precipitation Hardening Iron Base Superalloy Forgings for Turbine Rotor Disks and Wheels

    A914/A914M Standard Specification for Steel Bars Subject to Restricted End-Quench Hardenability Requirements

    A941 Standard Terminology Relating to Steel, Stainless Steel, Related Alloys, and Ferroalloys

    A943/A943M Standard Specification for Spray-Formed Seamless Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

    A965/A965M Standard Specification for Steel Forgings, Austenitic, for Pressure and High Temperature Parts

    A982/A982M Standard Specification for Steel Forgings, Stainless, for Compressor and Turbine Airfoils

    A983/A983M Standard Specification for Continuous Grain Flow Forged Carbon and Alloy Steel Crankshafts for Medium Speed Diesel Engines

    A988/A988M Standard Specification for Hot Isostatically-Pressed Stainless Steel Flanges, Fittings, Valves, and Parts for High Temperature Service

    A1014/A1014M Standard Specification for Precipitation-Hardening Bolting (UNS N07718) for High Temperature Service

    A1021/A1021M Standard Specification for Martensitic Stainless Steel Forgings and Forging Stock for High-Temperature Service

    A1028 Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Bars for Compressor and Turbine Airfoils

    A1033 Standard Practice for Quantitative Measurement and Reporting of Hypoeutectoid Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Phase Transformations

    A1090/A1090M Standard Specification for Forged Rings and Hollows Produced from Steels with Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance

    B19 Standard Specification for Cartridge Brass Sheet, Strip, Plate, Bar, and Disks

    B36/B36M Standard Specification for Brass Plate, Sheet, Strip, And Rolled Bar

    B43 Standard Specification for Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes

    B68/B68M Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube, Bright Annealed

    B75/B75M Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube

    B88 Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube

    B88M Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube [Metric]

    B99/B99M Standard Specification for Copper-Silicon Alloy Wire for General Applications

    B101 Standard Specification for Lead-Coated Copper Sheet and Strip for Building Construction

    B111/B111M Standard Specification for Copper and Copper-Alloy Seamless Condenser Tubes and Ferrule Stock

    B122/B122M Standard Specification for Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloy (Nickel Silver), and Copper-Nickel Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B129 Standard Specification for Cartridge Brass Cartridge Case Cups

    B130 Standard Specification for Commercial Bronze Strip for Bullet Jackets

    B131 Standard Specification for Copper Alloy Bullet Jacket Cups

    B134/B134M Standard Specification for Brass Wire

    B152/B152M Standard Specification for Copper Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Rolled Bar

    B162 Standard Specification for Nickel Plate, Sheet, and Strip

    B163 Standard Specification for Seamless Nickel and Nickel Alloy Condenser and Heat-Exchanger Tubes

    B166 Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696),* Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten Alloy (UNS N06674) Rod, Bar,

    B167 Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696),* Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten Alloy (UNS N06674) Seamless Pipe an

    B168 Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys (UNS N06600, N06601, N06603, N06690, N06693, N06025, N06045, and N06696), Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy (UNS N06617), and Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten Alloy (UNS N06674) Plate, Sheet,

    B194 Standard Specification for Copper-Beryllium Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B197/B197M Standard Specification for Copper-Beryllium Alloy Wire

    B206/B206M Standard Specification for Copper-Nickel-Zinc (Nickel Silver) Wire and Copper-Nickel Alloy Wire

    B248M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Copper and Copper-Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar (Metric)

    B248 Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Copper and Copper-Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B249/B249M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Copper and Copper-Alloy Rod, Bar, Shapes and Forgings

    B250/B250M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Copper Alloy Wire

    B251 Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube

    B251M Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube [Metric]

    B280 Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Field Service

    B333 Standard Specification for Nickel-Molybdenum Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

    B353 Standard Specification for Wrought Zirconium and Zirconium Alloy Seamless and Welded Tubes for Nuclear Service (Except Nuclear Fuel Cladding)

    B359/B359M Standard Specification for Copper and Copper-Alloy Seamless Condenser and Heat Exchanger Tubes With Integral Fins

    B370 Standard Specification for Copper Sheet and Strip for Building Construction

    B395/B395M Standard Specification for U-Bend Seamless Copper and Copper Alloy Heat Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

    B408 Standard Specification for Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy Rod and Bar

    B447 Standard Specification for Welded Copper Tube

    B465 Standard Specification for Copper-Iron Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B476 Standard Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Precious Metal Electrical Contact Materials

    B506 Specification for Copper-Clad Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip for Building Construction

    B508 Standard Specification for Copper Alloy Strip for Flexible Metal Hose

    B511 Standard Specification for Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Silicon Alloy Bars and Shapes

    B543/B543M Standard Specification for Welded Copper and Copper-Alloy Heat Exchanger Tube

    B552 Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Copper–Nickel Tubes for Water Desalting Plants

    B564 Standard Specification for Nickel Alloy Forgings

    B569 Standard Specification for Brass Strip in Narrow Widths and Light Gage for Heat-Exchanger Tubing

    B570 Standard Specification for Copper-Beryllium Alloy (UNS Nos. C17000 and C17200) Forgings and Extrusions

    B575 Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium

    B587 Standard Specification for Welded Brass Tube

    B591 Standard Specification for Copper-Zinc-Tin and Copper-Zinc-Tin-Iron-Nickel Alloys Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B592 Standard Specification for Copper-Zinc-Aluminum-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Zinc-Tin-Iron Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B643 Standard Specification for Copper-Beryllium Alloy Seamless Tube

    B694 Standard Specification for Copper, Copper-Alloy, Copper-Clad Bronze (CCB), Copper-Clad Stainless Steel (CCS), and Copper-Clad Alloy Steel (CAS) Sheet and Strip for Electrical Cable Shielding

    B708 Standard Specification for Tantalum and Tantalum Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

    B743 Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube in Coils

    B747 Standard Specification for Copper-Zirconium Alloy Sheet and Strip

    B749 Standard Specification for Lead and Lead Alloy Strip, Sheet, and Plate Products

    B751 Standard Specification for General Requirements for Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welded Tube

    B775 Standard Specification for General Requirements for Nickel and Nickel Alloy Welded Pipe

    B811 Standard Specification for Wrought Zirconium Alloy Seamless Tubes for Nuclear Reactor Fuel Cladding

    B829 Standard Specification for General Requirements for Nickel and Nickel Alloys Seamless Pipe and Tube

    B837 Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube for Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gas Fuel Distribution Systems

    B846 Standard Terminology for Copper and Copper Alloys

    B865 Standard Specification for Precipitation Hardening Nickel-Copper-Aluminum Alloy (UNS N05500) Bar, Rod, Wire, Forgings, and Forging Stock

    B884 Standard Specification for Niobium-Titanium Alloy Billets, Bar, and Rod for Superconducting Applications

    B903 Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Heat Exchanger Tubes With Internal Enhancement

    B906 Standard Specification for General Requirements for Flat-Rolled Nickel and Nickel Alloys Plate, Sheet, and Strip

    B919 Standard Specification for Welded Copper Heat Exchanger Tubes With Internal Enhancement

    B932 Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Gadolinium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

    B950 Standard Guide for Editorial Procedures and Form of Product Specifications for Copper and Copper Alloys

    B956/B956M Standard Specification for Welded Copper and Copper-Alloy Condenser and Heat Exchanger Tubes with Integral Fins

    B984 Standard Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Palladium- Cobalt Alloy for Engineering Use

    C968 Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Sintered Gadolinium Oxide-Uranium Dioxide Pellets

    C1421 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    C1576 Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress Flexural Testing (Stress Rupture) at Ambient Temperature

    E7 Standard Terminology Relating to Metallography

    E235/E235M Standard Specification for Type K and Type N Mineral-Insulated, Metal-Sheathed Thermocouples for Nuclear or for Other High-Reliability Applications

    E531 Standard Practice for Surveillance Testing of High-Temperature Nuclear Component Materials

    E606/E606M Standard Test Method for Strain-Controlled Fatigue Testing

    E839 Standard Test Methods for Sheathed Thermocouples and Sheathed Thermocouple Cable

    E930 Standard Test Methods for Estimating the Largest Grain Observed in a Metallographic Section (ALA Grain Size)

    E1181 Standard Test Methods for Characterizing Duplex Grain Sizes

    E1382 Standard Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size Using Semiautomatic and Automatic Image Analysis

    E1951 Standard Guide for Calibrating Reticles and Light Microscope Magnifications

    E2207 Standard Practice for Strain-Controlled Axial-Torsional Fatigue Testing with Thin-Walled Tubular Specimens

    E2368 Standard Practice for Strain Controlled Thermomechanical Fatigue Testing

    E2627 Standard Practice for Determining Average Grain Size Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) in Fully Recrystallized Polycrystalline Materials

    F15 Standard Specification for Iron-Nickel-Cobalt Sealing Alloy

    F30 Standard Specification for Iron-Nickel Sealing Alloys

    F31 Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Iron Sealing Alloys

    F68 Standard Specification for Oxygen-Free Copper in Wrought Forms for Electron Devices

    F138 Standard Specification for Wrought 18Chromium-14Nickel-2.5Molybdenum Stainless Steel Bar and Wire for Surgical Implants (UNS S31673)

    F139 Standard Specification for Wrought 18Chromium-14Nickel-2.5Molybdenum Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip for Surgical Implants (UNS S31673)

    F375 Standard Specification for Integrated Circuit Lead Frame Material

    F541 Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Eyebolts

    F561 Standard Practice for Retrieval and Analysis of Medical Devices, and Associated Tissues and Fluids

    F562 Standard Specification for Wrought 35Cobalt-35Nickel-20Chromium-10Molybdenum Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R30035)

    F603 Standard Specification for High-Purity Dense Aluminum Oxide for Medical Application

    F621 Standard Specification for Stainless Steel Forgings for Surgical Implants

    F688 Standard Specification for Wrought Cobalt-35Nickel-20Chromium-10Molybdenum Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Foil for Surgical Implants (UNS R30035)

    F799 Standard Specification for Cobalt-28Chromium-6Molybdenum Alloy Forgings for Surgical Implants (UNS R31537, R31538, R31539)

    F835 Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Socket Button and Flat Countersunk Head Cap Screws

    F835M Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Socket Button and Flat Countersunk Head Cap Screws (Metric)

    F912M Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Socket Set Screws (Metric)

    F912 Standard Specification for Alloy Steel Socket Set Screws

    F961 Standard Specification for 35Cobalt-35Nickel-20Chromium-10Molybdenum Alloy Forgings for Surgical Implants (UNS R30035)

    F1058 Standard Specification for Wrought 40Cobalt-20Chromium-16Iron-15Nickel-7Molybdenum Alloy Wire and Strip for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R30003 and UNS R30008)

    F1314 Standard Specification for Wrought Nitrogen Strengthened 22 Chromium–13 Nickel–5 Manganese–2.5 Molybdenum Stainless Steel Alloy Bar and Wire for Surgical Implants (UNS S20910)

    F1367 Standard Specification for Chromium Sputtering Targets for Thin Film Applications

    F1376 Standard Guide for Metallurgical Analysis for Gas Distribution System Components

    F1466 Standard Specification for Iron-Nickel-Cobalt Alloys for Metal-to-Ceramic Sealing Applications

    F1537 Standard Specification for Wrought Cobalt-28Chromium-6Molybdenum Alloys for Surgical Implants (UNS R31537, UNS R31538, and UNS R31539)

    F1586 Standard Specification for Wrought Nitrogen Strengthened 21Chromium-10Nickel-3Manganese-2.5Molybdenum Stainless Steel Alloy Bar for Surgical Implants (UNS S31675)

    F1594 Standard Specification for Pure Aluminum (Unalloyed) Source Material for Vacuum Coating Applications

    F1684 Standard Specification for Iron-Nickel and Iron-Nickel-Cobalt Alloys for Low Thermal Expansion Applications

    F1709 Standard Specification for High Purity Titanium Sputtering Targets for Electronic Thin Film Applications

    F1813 Standard Specification for Wrought Titanium–12 Molybdenum–6 Zirconium–2 Iron Alloy for Surgical Implant (UNS R58120)

    F2063 Standard Specification for Wrought Nickel-Titanium Shape Memory Alloys for Medical Devices and Surgical Implants

    F2066 Standard Specification for Wrought Titanium-15 Molybdenum Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R58150)

    F2215 Standard Specification for Balls, Bearings, Ferrous and Nonferrous for Use in Bearings, Valves, and Bearing Applications

    F2229 Standard Specification for Wrought, Nitrogen Strengthened 23Manganese-21Chromium-1Molybdenum Low-Nickel Stainless Steel Alloy Bar and Wire for Surgical Implants (UNS S29108)

    F2282 Standard Specification for Quality Assurance Requirements for Carbon and Alloy Steel Wire, Rods, and Bars for Mechanical Fasteners

    F2384 Standard Specification for Wrought Zirconium-2.5Niobium Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R60901)

    F2393 Standard Specification for High-Purity Dense Magnesia Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Mg-PSZ) for Surgical Implant Applications

    F2581 Standard Specification for Wrought Nitrogen Strengthened 11Manganese-17Chromium-3Molybdenum Low-Nickel Stainless Steel Alloy Bar and Wire for Surgical Implants (UNS S29225)

    F2882M Standard Specification for Screws, Alloy Steel, Heat Treated, 1170 MPa Minimum Tensile Strength [Metric]

    F2882 Standard Specification for Screws, Alloy Steel, Heat Treated, 170 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength

    G108 Standard Test Method for Electrochemical Reactivation (EPR) for Detecting Sensitization of AISI Type 304 and 304L Stainless Steels

    G133 Standard Test Method for Linearly Reciprocating Ball-on-Flat Sliding Wear


    Referenced ASTM Standards The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    E3 Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens

    E7 Terminology Relating to Metallography

    E407 Practice for Microetching Metals and Alloys

    E562 Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic Manual Point Count

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    E883 Guide for Reflected-Light Photomicrography

    E930 Test Methods for Estimating the Largest Grain Observed in a Metallographic Section (ALA Grain Size)

    E1181 Test Methods for Characterizing Duplex Grain Sizes

    E1382 Test Methods for Determining Average Grain Size Using Semiautomatic and Automatic Image Analysis